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Terminology

Beyond basic surfski/downwind/paddling related terms (mostly in English), we've also included some local slang from prominent paddling communities around the world - to add some flavor - but that is by no means meant to be comprehensive in any way. On the other hand, if we have missed any major surfski or downwind related terms (again, we are English centric), please remind us with an email - surfski.wiki email

Aloha

Commonly used for “hello” and “goodbye” in Hawaii but traditionally also used to convey more. “Talofa” in Samoan is a similar word of greeting that also has a much richer context of community and affection. “Mahalo” is Hawaiian for “thank you”, but similarly to aloha in greater context is also used to express deep appreciation, respect, and gratitude. But the wiki is not going to do justice to the rich cultural context of these terms. If you are curious, please look further into the meanings of these terms and the cultural heritages of traditional paddling communities.

Arvo

Australian slang for “afternoon”

Barnacles

Barnacle” is a term used in Bellingham, WA. to refer to an older paddler (60+ yrs old). Typically our barnacles are still tenacious racers and/or downwind enthusiasts. Also sometimes referred to as “ancient murrelets”.1) 70+ yr old paddlers are called “Grand Barnacles”

Photo: Reivers Dustin - Click to enlarge

the_dudes_.jpg

Bob McBeath and Duncan Howat Smoking the Youngsters in the 2018 S2S Canoe Leg

Beta

  • (From climbing, but used now for a number of sports and activities) Information about a route, area, or activity acquired before visiting the area or embarking on the activity. In climbing if you climb a route on your first attempt without any falls and with no beta that is called an “onsite”. With no falls but with beta is called a “flash”.
  • Beta Spray (Also from climbing) Unsolicited advice about how to do something (typically referring to technique - not safety advice) similar to “fun ruiner”. Given how often getting local knowledge is so important for paddling unfamiliar runs we're not sure this is that useful of a term for downwinding, but we like it anyway. In downwinding, one's first completion of a world class downwinder is very unlikely to be spoiled by advance knowledge about the run. And of course, one of the great things about some great downwind runs is how much they can vary with different conditions.

Boat Classifications

  • Canoe 2) - paddler sits or kneels and uses a single bladed paddle, Kayak - paddler sits and uses a double bladed paddle (these are, of course, just traditional conventions - each of these can be paddled with the other type of paddle, although single bladed kayaking with the lower sitting position is not typically terribly efficient nor is steering easy without a rudder)
    • Some canoes do not have hard decks (“open”) (but some do - slalom canoes, OCs, Va'as) or cockpits (except slalom canoes, (and Va'as after a fashion)). Surfskis belong to the style of “sit-on-top” kayaks that do not have a cockpit but instead have a recessed seating area sealed off from the hull. Sit-on-top kayaks typically are easier to remount than kayaks with cockpits and their sealed hulls should not take on internal water in upsets and rough water. Proper sea kayaks (and Va'as) will also have bulkheads so only the cockpit can take on water, but that volume of water can be substantially more than what a sit-on-top kayak takes on. And sit-on-top kayaks typically have drain holes which effectively drain water simply due to the floatation of the kayak. One might call a modern sealed hull outrigger canoe a “sit-on-top canoe”, though we are not aware of any example usage. Smaller OCs typically drain on their own, while larger ones have to be bailed or have some kind of bilge pump. Va'as similarly require active draining.
  • Ocean ski, Spec ski - the modern surfski, “ocean ski”, evolved for open ocean wave surfing and downwinding from a version, “spec ski”, that was designed and is still used for breaking through shore break and for life saving competitions. Spec skis can be and are used effectively for downwinding although they are generally not quite as fast as ocean skis for pure downwinding. Spec skis are typically heavier and more robust for working through or surfing in shorebreak. Spec skis are not considered good rescue vehicles and if they are used in lifesaving it is primarily to observe or to bring initial floatation before a better vessel can arrive for rescue.
  • SS - surfski, OC - outrigger canoe
  • Multiples
    • SS1, SS2, SS3 - single, double, triple (e.g. Carbonology S3) surfskis
    • C1, C2, C4, etc. - single, double, 4 person canoes - can be Olympic style sprint canoes (paddled kneeling on one knee) or other canoe types such as marathon racing canoes. Native North American racing canoes run from C1 to C15 (aka WC or “War Canoe”).
    • K1, K2, K4, etc. - single, double, 4 person kayaks - can be sprint, marathon, or slalom kayak types
    • Outrigger Canoes
      • OC1 - (“Wa'a” Hawaian style) single paddler outrigger canoe with rudder, OC2, OC3, OC4, OC6 likewise indicating number of seats built in these canoes for paddlers
      • V1, V2, etc. - (“Va'a” Tahitian style) outrigger canoes, rudderless so all sizes require paddle steering. Va'as also have a cockpit a bit more like a sea kayak. Va'as have bulkheads and no cockpit drains (in contrast to OCs) so that the deeper cockpit can fill with a lot of water and become pretty ungainly. Newer Va'as typically include foot pumps which usually allow you to keep the cockpit dry except when you huli.
      • W1, W2, W3 etc. “W” for “Waka ama” designation popular in New Zealand for outrigger styles either OC or Va'a (Waka = canoe in Maori, Waka ama = outrigger canoe in Maori)
      • Generally OC4, V4, W4 and larger are similar - no rudder - and a steer person is required. No drains, must either be bailed or have some kind of drainage pump.
      • OC12, V12, W12 - most likely double hulled canoes - (2X) 6 person outrigger canoes connected side by side
  • Dragon Boat - 8 to 20 person canoe with two columns of paddlers sitting side by side. Each paddler only paddles on one side, in contrast to almost all other canoes where you regularly swap sides with your paddle. Dragon boat paddlers use their own style of single bladed paddle that has an abrupt straight end with 90 degree corners. Olympic sprint canoers also paddle on just one side.
  • HPK - high performance kayak (eg. surfski), SK - sea kayak, FSK - fast sea kayak etc. these are designations that were developed to provide some uniformity of boat speed classification for racing - based on width and length of boats. There are some beginner surfskis (see the “Race Cat” column in surfski table) whose dimensions qualify them as FSKs in races using these ratings. SoundRowers.org Classification Reference
  • SS20+ - racing classification added for the Blackburn Challenge - “The Surfski 20 Plus (SS20Plus) class is a new class for 2013. This class will include surfskis whose beam is greater then 20 inches (50.8 cm). A surfski is defined as closed hull front facing paddled boat with an open self bailing cockpit. Examples of surfskis included in this class are: Epic V8 & V6, Stellar S18S, Think EZE, Nelo Viper 55 Ski, Fenn Blue-Fin, etc. Anyone paddling a SS20Plus surfski can still participate in the HPK class if they would like, but no longer the FSK class like prior years. Both the HPK and SS20Plus will start at the same time.” - New England Surfski facebook

Boat Design Terms

Boat Orientation and Dimensions

This is a subset of common boat terms that may be more likely to be heard in reference to surfskis (particularly from paddlers with experience with other types of boats)

  • bow - front end, stern - rear end
  • port - left, starboard - right
  • aft - the area towards the stern of the boat.
  • fore, forward - the area towards the bow.
  • heel - lateral or transverse tilt
  • transverse - at right angles to the boat's fore to aft center line
  • waterline - the intersection of a boat's hull and the water's surface, or where the boat sits in the water.
  • keel - the lowest point of the boat's hull, the keel typically provides stability and prevents sideways drift of the boat in the water; most surfskis are rounded transversely, so they really do not have a defined keel on the bottom in which case the term simply refers to the bottom centerline running fore to aft.
  • beam - the width of the boat, measured at its widest point; generally, the larger the beam, the more stable the boat.
  • draft - the distance between the waterline and the keel (bottom centerline) of a boat or lowest fixed piece of running gear which in the case of surfskis and OCs can be the bottom of a long surfing rudder. Thus draft is the minimum depth of water necessary to allow a boat to float freely.

Bombora (aka bommie, bombie, bommy)

An indigenous Australian term for offshore areas with reefs or shallows that can cause ocean swell to jack up into large breaking waves. The term may be used to refer to the waves caused by the shallows or refer to the reefs themselves. More about waves...

Brace

using one of your paddle blades in a “fixed” position to press against the water for stability and support

Broach

when a sailboat turns sharply (slews) back into the wind because the rudder cannot compensate for the forces bearing on the boat's direction it is “broaching”. The same term is used in downwind paddling, when your boat turns sideways (usually at speed, on a wave) though you are trying to steer it forward with the wave. Broaching tendency is elevated by a difference in speed between your boat and the waves, either by going faster or by going slower than the waves you are surfing. Causes:

  • Boat speed exceeding wave speed (as when you accelerate down the front of a steep wave), turning too far, and less rudder surface area in the water (using a smaller rudder and/or because your rudder is lifting above the water) all contribute to a greater tendency to broach.
  • Diving into the wave in front of you at an angle
  • Paddling at a low speed and being overtaken by a steep or breaking wave (such as slowing down too much in a surf landing zone). See also Weathercocking (if boat weight balance is driving you offline you will be more susceptible to broaches, probably in particular with lower boat speed relative to wind and waves)

Notice with some recommendations for how to avoid broaching there may be too much emphasis on either the too slow or too fast circumstances when experience will teach you how to recognize the difference and take a different approach depending on circumstance. You can often overcome an impending broach by bringing you surfski closer to the speed of your waves, by steering closer to the direction your wave is going, and by getting more rudder in the water (by getting past a wave crest or leaning back and putting more weight on the rear of you boat). If you need to speed up, leaning forward may help if you are on the front of a wave. Leaning back will usually tend to slow you down somewhat and can also help reduce bow burying into the wave in front of you (which reduces the likelihood of a wave burying broach and can reduce loss of speed by getting over the wave in front more quickly). Applying pressure with a brace can both tend to slow you down and help turning toward the side you are bracing on.

Brother/Dude variations

You may want to spend some time around the locals before you adopt these expressions. They can be in or out of favor or have different meanings depending on your location or the context for using these terms.

  • Bro - often used in a negative context these days. Coming from surfing culture. Endless variations - “broheim”, “broski”, “Charles Brokowski”, “brofessor”, “brotato chip”, etc.
  • Bra, Brah - Hawaiian - may be somewhat out of date now
  • Brada - Hawaiian
  • Bru, Bruh - South African
  • Bruz can be okay or negative in Australia
  • Buraz Serbian
  • Less Common - Breh, Bruv, etc. etc.

Cayuco

Latin American Spanish term for a small canoe. In Puerto Rico “cayuco” is an idiomatic term for a difficult situation: “Esto està cayuco” = “this is a big mess”. A popular annual multi-day race in Panama is the Ocean to Ocean Cayuco Race through the Panama Canal (crocodiles are a protected species in the Panama Canal).

Cracker

Australian slang used to describe something as “great”. That was a cracker downwinder, mate. 3) “Corker” and “Ripper” can be used similarly.

Downwind

If you are traveling in open water (paddling, foiling, kiting…) on wind driven waves (or a combination of swell and wind waves), you are downwinding 4) , or going on a downwinder. Paddlers (OCs, SUPs, Surfskis) get added speed and propulsion by surfing on such waves. “Downwinding” can be done in the form of repeated laps or by paddling solely in one direction, but saying you are going on a “downwinder” typically implies going in one primary direction from point A to point B downwind the whole way, having setup a shuttle for pickup at the end point and retrieval of vehicles from the start point. The exhilaration of downwind paddling drives the growing popularity of surfskis more than any other single factor.

  • Terms for downwind conditions: 5) 6)
    • = BIG
      • Awesome, Nuclear, Epic, Puckery, Survival, Rock-a-Hula, Gorgelike (these terms usually just imply bigness while others like Ticklish and Manky also imply some size plus turbulence - also “Fiddly” whether just big or big and turbulent seems to imply nervousness inducing)
    • = MEDIUM - SMALL
      • SlightCaps, Bumps
    • = NOT SO GREAT
      • Lumpy, Micro Bumps
    • = NOTHING
      • Duck or Mosquito Farts, as Flat as (- “someone's beer?” - “LG's roof?” - fill in your own…), Pondwater
    • Applied Across the Range of Size Levels
      • Technical (waves from multiple directions), “Chunky Munky” - choppy, difficult, maybe also “technical”.
        • more about “technical” from the UK - “…was messy— purists would call it ‘technical’ - it sounds better, because it gives the impression that you know what you are doing. I call it survival!! Andy Nicholson from Hayling calls it ‘paddling at your limit’ T-bone calls it ‘fekking scary’”

Drafting/Bow Wake Riding

Paddling either directly close behind another water craft (drafting) or alongside and trailing about 2/3 of the lead boat's bow (riding the lead boat's bow wake) reduces the effort required to maintain the same speed as paddling without any draft would require. The directly behind draft effect (water slipstream) for boats is strongest when closest. But care has to be taken to avoid annoying the lead paddler(s) or damaging your and their boats by bumping into them when too close. Drafting is generally not practical when downwinding behind other small paddled boats (it can work behind bigger boats), but serious racers will try to use it to get any ounce of assistance possible in other situations though drafting in choppy water requires a fair amount of skill both to stay close enough to get benefit and to be efficient enough to avoid using more energy than paddling solo would consume. See also WRS, Drafting technique

Eponyms - words created because of the close association between a person or place and the word. Examples: nicotine, boycott, diesel (after Rudolph Diesel, not Vin).

  • “Lipp” - Named after Alan Lipp, a Lipp is a unit of measurement (aka a “Lipp Unit”) used for downwinding in which 1 Lipp = a 30 second ride/run/wave surf without paddling. One Lipp is considered outstanding and even 1/2 a Lipp is pretty good. 2 Lipps = 1 PHAT Lipp (aka 1 Tiptoe), the holy grail of downwind paddling..7) 8)
  • Patling” is paddling with your legs out of the cockpit, feet in the water. Named after “Pat” who paddled 13 miles with his feet out across Lake Mille Lacs in Minnesota on a windy day.9)
  • Wilson” A Wilson is completing 10 Miller's runs in one day. Named after South African paddler Wayne 'Wild Dog' Wilson.

Feather

“feather” of your kayak paddle refers to the angle your blades are offset from one another. Feathering your blades may be helpful in paddling upwind - reducing the wind effect on the recovery side blade. When one blade is in the water, the one in the air (if feathered) slices through the wind rather than catching or having to push against it. Oscar Chalupsky (somewhat controversially) in recent years has recommended surfskiers adopt zero feather to simplify bracing and because feathering is not needed when paddling downwind. There is a fair amount of argument about 0 feather, but it has gained some adherents, including Boyan Zlatarev in Tarifa.10)

Fetch

also known as wind fetch or fetch length is the length of water over which a given wind has blown without obstruction. A longer fetch along with stronger winds contributes to larger wave size. Some refer to “fetch width” which can contribute to waves coming from more directions although a number of geographical and weather factors can also contribute to multiple wave directions without necessarily having a large fetch width.

Frother

A Frother is someone who is fully amped or excited about something. Term comes from WA Australian surfers.

Grand Ducky of Fenwick (more commonly know as the Duchy of Grand Fenwick)

Reivers Dustin's adopted homeland. He uses his dual citizenship to compete for the Ducky11) in the Think International Challenge race series.

Kiff (Kif)

“Cool”, great, fantastic, etc. - from South Africa

Kuckelikusurfutmaningen

Swedish for “Cock-a-doodle-do Surf Maneuvers” or daybreak downwinding/surfing.

Kuckelikusurfutmaningen


Lekker

South African English slang meaning “cool”, “sweet”, or “very excellent”. Derived from Afrikaans/Dutch where it means something more like “tasty” or “luscious”.

Ocker

A typical or average Australian male. Ocker is also used as an adjective meaning characteristically Australian (also occa, okker) (Can be used to describe someone uncouth, etc., but we're sticking with the more positive definition here, mate, because the Aussie surfskiers we have met are a lekker bunch.)12)

Oke

South African term for “person”, “guy”, “bloke” - male or female

Outrigger Terms

  • ama - Polynesian term for an outrigger float. Used for the ones on the side of an OC and a Va'a and also commonly used when referring to the outside floats on catamarans and trimarans. With canoes amas are usually mounted on the left but can be mounted on the right (which surfing OCs do in Hawaii to catch “rights” while avoiding digging in with their amas and flipping)
  • iako - Hawaiian term for a pole (2 per canoe) that connects an ama to an outrigger canoe (Polynesian term is “aka”)
  • huli - term commonly used by outrigger paddlers to mean tipping one's boat (usually flipping) and falling in the water which can be a little more dramatic in an OC given the two boat parts. In rough water OCers sometimes manage to huli boat over ama. Huli is becoming more common in usage with other types of boats to also refer to falling in the water.

Huli Photo: Paul Reavley - Click to enlarge

OC in middle of a huli


Pearl (nosedive)

Term from surfing meaning a nosedive. Strictly speaking in surfing it refers to a nosedive into the wave you are on, which is rare with a surfski unless you are on steep waves such as shore break. Having a surfski nose submerge more commonly involves burying your bow into the base or back of the wave in front of you when you are downwinding. The degree that the nose gets buried can often be moderated by leaning your torso backward which will usually reduce how far your bow gets buried thereby reducing your speed loss and diminishing how long it takes for your bow to pop up on top of the water again. Extreme nosedives on steep waves can lead to “pitch poling” where the rear end flips over the front. This usually occurs only in the very steep waves found in shore break, boomers, or very big seas and lends itself to boat and boater injury.

almostpitchpole.jpg

Near OC pitchpole (big conditions, open ocean), Kaiwi Solo 2024, photo from video clip


Put-in, Take-out

  • Put-in where you put your boat in the water to launch
  • Take out - where you take your boat out of the water to end your paddle trip.

Rebound (aka Reflection)

Waves that bounce off steep/abrupt shorelines or barriers in the water and rebound causing waves traveling at a different angle than the prevailing waves. Rebound typically increases turbulence. Read more about Rebound on the Wave Basics page.

Rhumb Line

The path between two points on a surface that allows a constant bearing. On a curved surface like the earth it is not the shortest path, but it allows the simplest navigation. On a two dimensional surface it is also the shortest path. Wikipedia: “Over the Earth's surface at low latitudes or over short distances it can be used for plotting the course of a vehicle, aircraft or ship. Over longer distances and/or at higher latitudes the great circle route is significantly shorter than the rhumb line between the same two points.”

Rips and Races

The following are the traditional definitions of such currents. It is not uncommon, however, to see “rip current” used to refer to an actual tidal race.

  • Rip Currents (aka Rip, aka Rip Tide - hence the common confusion between “rip tide” and “tide rip” - a misnomer because these currents are not caused by the tide) are powerful, narrow channels of fast-moving water that are common along ocean coasts as well as along the shores of some large lakes such as the US Great Lakes. Typically these currents flow outward perpendicularly away from shore. If caught in a rip current, don't fight it! Swim or paddle parallel to the shore to get out of the rip before heading more directly back toward shore.
  • Tidal Race (aka Tide Rip) is a specific type of current associated with the swift movement of tidal water (either ebbing or rising) through inlets and the mouths of estuaries, bays, and harbors. These tidal currents are stronger and faster where constriction or narrowing of a channel occurs, but such constrictions are not always visible, they can also occur underwater from bottom depth variation. Depending on circumstance such tidal currents can be a nuisance or a danger or they can be the source of excellent waves to surf.13)
  • Overfall is another term used in conjunction with rough tidal current. We have found a variety of definitions, some which equate an overfall with tidal races and others which distinguish an “overfall” as tidal current going over obstacles or rough sea bed features. We are not sure about the distinction - tidal races where swell and wind oppose a strong current can get quite rough, but changes in sea bed topography certainly also seem to contribute to wave formation with strong tidal current. Overfall appears to be a more common term in sea kayaking circles.

Stoke

Term from surfing meaning “excitement”, “euphoria”, “thrill”, “exhilaration”, “delight”, etc. Also used as in “I'm stoked” meaning I'm “excited”, “euphoric”, “thrilled”, “ecstatic”, “exhilarated”, “pleased”, “delighted”, …

Tidal Bore

A tidal bore, or simply “bore”, happens when the leading edge of an incoming tide forms a wave (or series of waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current. Well known tidal bores around the world.

TOW

“Time on Water” as in, much of the way to get better in water sports is spending more TOW. Or with surfskis most of us can benefit from more “TIB” = time in the bucket.

Uitwaaien

“outblowing” - the Dutch cure for the winter blues which is basically spending time in the wind.

The Dutch practice of jogging or walking in the wind, especially in the winter, for the purpose of feeling invigorated while relieving stress and boosting one's general health. Combine this with the positive effects of being on or near water and downwinding would seem like a double benefit for paddlers in colder climes like Bellingham, WA.

Wallowing

repeatedly missing waves and sliding back down their backsides is called “wallowing”

Wallowing may be due to any or all of these:

  • waves that are just going too fast - e.g. trying to catch swell when you should be catching slower moving wind waves first to get your speed up
  • too much water in the foot/seat area (does your surfski drain as quickly as it should?)
  • fatigue - take a break
  • bad timing - usually accelerating too late If you were waiting for the opportune moment, that was it.” Jack Sparrow - Pirates of the Caribbean

Waves

From labman.phys.utk.edu (Univ. of Tennessee)

“Water waves are surface waves, a mixture of longitudinal and transverse waves. Surface waves in oceanography are deformations of the sea surface. The deformations propagate with the wave speed, while the water molecules remain at the same positions on average. Energy, however, moves towards the shore (with the wave). Most ocean waves are produced by wind, and the energy from the wind offshore is carried by the waves towards the shore.”

Wave Basics

Wind

Effect on Steering

Weathercocking

  • is when the boat tends to turn into the wind (upwind).

Lee cocking

  • is when the boat tends to turn away from the wind (downwind). Side wind will tend to have more of a lee cocking effect on surfskis that have large bow profiles and/or more bow volume particularly with a lighter paddler.

With many types of boats the following is often suggested: If a boat weathercocks, adding weight to the stern can help balance the handling. If a boat lee cocks, adding weight to the bow can help balance the handling. This is not necessarily practical for solo surfskiers, but can suggest ways that you might want to consider arranging paddlers in doubles if the conditions merit.

Wind Directions

  • Wind names most commonly refer to the direction wind is coming from:
    • “South wind” - wind from the south, “east wind” - wind from the east, etc.
    • Sometimes people may say a “southerly” or “northerly” wind. If used correctly these terms also refer to the direction these winds are coming from even though as adjectives they may sound somewhat opposite. A southerly is coming from the south, a westerly comes from the west, etc.
    • One exception to the naming rule of where the wind is coming from:
      • onshore means the wind is blowing from the water toward the shore
      • offshore conversely means the wind is blowing from the shore land toward the water
  • following” wind or seas - means going the same way as you are going

Click here to see more wind terminology

Click here to hide these wind definitions

    • Cross shore wind: Wind that blows more or less parallel to the shoreline
    • Tailwind: wind that is blowing in the direction you want to paddle, coming from behind you, giving you a good push, and working with you
    • Headwind: Wind coming from directly in front of you, from the direction you want to paddle, head-on. Headwinds work against you.​​
    • Crosswind: Wind that comes from the side, across your direction of travel.
    • Downwind: In the direction the wind is blowing, with the wind, similar to tailwind.
    • Upwind: Against the direction of the wind, similar to headwind.
    • Nor’easter: According to NOAA, a Nor’easter is a cyclonic storm that can develop along East Coast of North America that features strong winds blowing from the northeast.
    • Kona Wind: Important to know if you paddle in Hawaii, a Kona wind is a wind blowing from the southwest or south-southwest, usually from the leeward (protected) side of the island toward the windward. For example, if a Kona wind comes up while you are paddling the Maliko Run on Maui’s North Shore, it could blow you out to sea. It’s the opposite of the tradewind.
    • Tradewind: The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly (coming from the east -blowing toward to west) surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth’s equator. In the northern hemisphere the trade winds generally blow from the north east while in the southern hemisphere they blow from the south east. The direction of the winds is influenced by land masses so trade winds tend to be more uniform over the oceans
    • Easterly, Easterlies A wind, especially a prevailing wind, that blows from the east. The tradewinds in tropical regions and the prevailing winds in the polar regions are easterlies.
    • Prevailing Wind A wind from the direction that is predominant at a particular place or season.

WRS

“Wash Riding Scum” - derogatory racing term for paddlers who draft and either never take turns pulling from the front, or draft continually until race end then sprint to beat the boat(s) that carried them on their backs for the entire race. Attitudes about wash riding without turns in the lead can vary depending on local race tradition and the experience of the paddlers involved. Drafting is usually considered just fine and a part of racing skill in most locales although there are exceptions. And those who are learning or trying to improve by keeping in a slipstream that they can barely hang on to will typically be cut some slack (good racers generally have methods for dropping weak drafters if they wish). Others who hang back solely to try to sprint to wins are sometimes not considered so favorably - hence “WRS”. When dealing with this tactic, many consider such WRSers fair game for tactics such as scraping off at turns and obstacles.

Yew

From urbandictionary.com: “A word used to show excitement, originally by surfers but now used by non-surfers….”

2)
* Outside of the USA (particularly in the UK) “canoe” can also be a more generic term that refers to canoes and kayaks
3)
reference provided by Wayne Jater, Queensland, Au
4)
More about downwinding
6)
Usage varies - there is really no consensus - always good fodder for argument
7)
Lipp, Alan, Bellingham, WA., Final arbiter of Lipp qualifications ( JR's description )
12)
reference provided by Judi Row, Queensland, Au
13)
See Ambleside or Deception Pass - typically the waves stack up more with wind going against the current. Also they often tend to be technical with rapidly varying wave forms and directions so these sites when working can provide particularly demanding workouts for strength and skill.